## Probabilities in the Galaxy A Distribution Model for habitable Planets Copyright © Klaus Piontzik

 German Version

## 8.3 - „Earth 2“

 Analogous to the previous Special Basic Model we can generalize the equations 3.1.1 and 3.3.4 for habitable "Earths 2" in sun-like systems so that they apply to general star systems with habitable, earth-like planets:
 8.3.1 Equation Nhex = Nphx · Fgae Nhex = A · FX · Fph · Fgae

The number of NhexGal of all star systems with habitable, earth-like planets in the galaxy is then the sum of all spectral classes:

 8.3.2 Equation NhexGal = ∑ Nhex = A · ∑ (FX · Fph · Fgae)

Assuming that the other star systems, i.e. not sun-like stars, also have the same or similar planetary distribution, it is possible to estimate how many systems with habitable "Earths 2" could exist.

 8.3.3 Approach In star systems that are not sun-like, there are probably the same or similar distributions, for earth-like habitable planets, as in sun-like systems.

The number NhexGal of all star systems with habitable, earth-like planets in the galaxy (∑ Fx = 1), is approximately equivalent to:

 8.3.4 Equation NhexGal = ∑ Nhex ≈ A · Fph · Fgae

Inserting all values (Fe = 0.1) into equation 8.3.4:

NhexGal1 = (100-300)·109 · 1:4200 · 1:69
NhexGal1 = 345,065 – 1,035,196 habitable „Earth 2“

Inserting all values (Fe = 0,01) into equation 8.3.4:

NhexGal2 = (100-300)·109 · 1:4200 · 1:691
NhexGal2 = 34,456 – 103,370 habitable „Earth 2“

The two results can then be summarized to the following statement::

 8.3.5 Theorem There could be between 34,000 and 1,035,000 Earths 2 in our galaxy.
 8.3.6 Theorem There could be a maximum of up to 1 million "Earths 2" in our galaxy.

The probability for habitable, earth-like planets in any star system, in the galaxy, is then:
:

 8.3.7 Definition FhexGal = Fph · Fgae FhexGal = Fp · Fh · Fg · Fa · Fe

FhexGal = Fph · Fgae
FhexGal = 1:4200 · (1:69–1:691)
F
hexGal = 1:289,800 – 1: 2,902,200

Only every 289,800 - 2,902,200th star system produces an earth-like planet, in the habitable zone.

It is left to the reader for practice to make the calculations for planets with life and intelligence himself. Otherwise, see the table at the end of the book (page 137).

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