## Probabilities in the Galaxy A Distribution Model for habitable Planets Copyright © Klaus Piontzik

 German Version

## 10 – The Seager-Equation 10.1 - The Equation from Sara-Seager

 Sara Seager [1] is a Canadian-American astrophysicist (*1971). She introduced a modified approach to the Drake equation. This approach is called the Seager-Equation and sometimes it is called the Drake-Seager-Equation. In contrast to the Drake equation, their approach does not work with the star formation rate, but with a fixed set of stars, namly systems from the spectralclass M.

Seager's approach is limited to the so-called M-stars, also called red dwarfs, and the future James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), [2] and the planned TESS space probe (Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite). [3]

 JWST TESS

The James Webb Space Telescope is virtually the successor to the Hubble Telescope and is scheduled to be launched in 2021. The TESS satellite is gone on the journey on 18 April 2018 and is looking for exoplanets using the transit method. (Sarah Seager uses other indices than defined in Definition 2.7.2)

The Seager-equation is:

 10.1.1 Equation N = N* · fQ · fHZ · fO · fL · fS

The following values for the probability factors are taken from a document that Sara Seager has placed on the Internet.[4]

N* stands for the number of M-stars (Red Dwarfs), which can be examined with the coming telescope JWST.(30,000 - 50,000)

fQ stands for the proportion of quiet M-stars. The amount of stars, which repeatedly throw large amounts of gamma rays into space is 20 %.

fHZ is the proportion of those systems that have a planet in the habitable zone. (cirka 15 %)

fO quantifies the number of planets that are visible for the JWST visibly past their star (1% of the potentially observable planets pass before their star, 10% of which are close enough to the earth for observation) (0.01 x 0.1= 0.001)

fL represents the share of planets with life. The factor is set to one here because one assumes that life could be created on every habitable planet.

fS s a measurable biosignature, in the atmosphere. (50 %)

Substituting the values in the equation 10.1.1 yields

N = (30,000 bis 50,000) · 0.8 · 0.15 · 0.001 · 1 · 0.5
N = 1.8 – 3 technological civilizations

According to Sara Seager, N = 2. This result shows that intelligent life is also possible in the case of red dwarfs, as the central star.

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