## Probabilities in the Galaxy A Distribution Model for habitable Planets Copyright © Klaus PiontzikClaude Bärtels

 German Version

## 2.3 - Superearth

 Superearths are planets with at least four times the earth's mass. Most of the superearths are in a range of 4 to 20 earth masses. However, there are also specimens of up to 40 earth masses. Most of the superearths are about the size of the earth or at most twice as large.

According to the "Habitable Exoplanets Catalog" of September 2015, 21 of 31 habitable planets are so-called superearths.
This corresponds to a share of 67.741 %. The probability factor is therefore F
hsup = 0.677,419 = 21:31.

According to the "Habitable Exoplanets Catalog" of December 2017, 30 of 53 habitable planets are superearths. This corresponds to a share of 56.603 %. The probability factor is therefore F
hsup = 0.566,037 = 30:53.

If you calculate the mean value from both information, you get:

 Fhsupm = 0.621,723 ± 0.055 Fhsupm = 2,043:3,286
 2.3.1 Theorem 62.172% of all habitable planets, in solar-like star systems, are probably superearth.

Then, from equation 1.6.1 for solar-like star systems that have habitable planets, a relationship for superearth can also be derived.
Related to all star systems A in our galaxy, the number N
hsup of the G-star systems, with habitable super-earths, results to:

 2.3.2 Equation Nhsup = Nh · Fhsup Nhsup = A · Fsph · Fhsup

Starting point are 100-300 billion solar systems in the galaxy. Insert into equation 2.3.2:

 2.3.3 Theorem There could be 4.144 to 12.434 million habitable superearths in solar-like star systems, in our galaxy.

The probability for habitable superearths in solar-like star systems, in the galaxy, is then:

 2.3.4 Definition Fsup = Fsph · Fhsup

Fsup = 1:15,000 · 2,043:3,286
F
sup = 0.000,041,449 = 1:24,126

Among about 24,126 sun-like star systems, one exists, with a superearth.

In principle, there is no reason why simple life, in the form of flora, can also develop on superearth. However, because of the high gravity, it is doubtful whether intelligence and civilization can really develop on such planets. More likely are civilizations on approximately earth-great planets and approximately earth-like planets.

From the existing catalogue data, two further probabilities can be extracted for planets that can be used as life carriers, namely for approximately earth-great planets and approximately earth-like planets.

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