Impressum  Disclaimer  https://www.probabilitiesinthegalaxy.com 
The procedure used in the chapters of the
book is called an axiomatic procedure in mathematics.
Hypotheses are drawn from the analysis of empirical data
of the Kepler satellite, which are called approaches and
axioms. The statements derived from this are formulated
as sentences to which certain probabilities are assigned.
All axioms and sentences lead to an overall
representation of the situation, which can then be used
as a working hypothesis. This is a working hypothesis
regarding the distribution of habitable, earthlike
planets, as well as life, intelligence and civilizations
in our galaxy. It is rather improbable that we are alone in the universe. It is more probable that we are not alone. The book is based on the mathematical part of the "Alien Hypothesis". The work "Probabilities in the Galaxy" forms a closed, uniform working hypothesis that describes the distribution of habitable planets, life, intelligence and civilization in our galaxy. Furthermore, the Drakeequation and the Seager equation have been integrated into the model. 
In order to make
the model of the distribution of life and intelligence in
the galaxy accessible to a wider public, i have decided
to put the mathematical part of the model largely on the
Internet. As much of the model is published as necessary
to implement the model. However, the references in the
text can only be looked up in the book. A new version of the book is under construction. It will be published until April 2020 Individual parts in the following Register are marked as "supplement". These parts are included in the new version. 
Probabilities
in the Galaxy
A
Distribution Model for habitable Planets
Register
Seite  
Part 1  The Basic Model  
Introduction  8  
1  Planets in the Galaxy  9 
1.1  Detection of Planets  9 
1.2  Data of the Kepler Satellite  10 
1.3  Evaluation of Kepler Data  11 
1.4  Sunlike Starsystems  11 
1.5  GStars with Planets  12 
1.6  GStars with habitable Planets  12 
1.7  Probabilities for habitable Planets  14 
1.8  Catagories of Planets  supplemen 
1.9  Summary  14 
2  Evaluation of catalogue data  15 
2.1  Newer Catalog Data for Exoplanets  15 
2.2  Subearth  17 
2.3  Superearth  18 
2.4  Approximately earthgreat Planets  20 
2.5  Comment on press releases  supplemen 
2.6  Approximately earthlike Planets  21 
2.7  Summary  23 
2.8  Conventions and Notation  24 
3  "Earth 2.0"  25 
3.1  How many "Earth 2" are possible?  25 
3.2  Case Distinctions  25 
3.3  Consequences  27 
3.4  „How many stars are there?“  28 
3.5  Statistics  30 
4  Animated Planets in our Galaxy  31 
4.1  Planetary Assumptions for Life  31 
4.2  The LifeFactor  supplemen 
4.3  Differentiation for the Probability of Life  supplement 
4.4  "Earth 2" with Life  36 
5  Intelligent Species in our Galaxy  38 
5.1  Global Catastrophies  38 
5.2  Planetary Dangers of Development  40 
5.3  The consciousness factor  supplemen 
5.4  Differentiation for the Probability of Intelligence  supplement 
5.5  Intelligent Species on an "Earth 2"  44 
6  Civilizations in the Galaxy  46 
6.1  Developmental Levels of a Civilization  46 
6.2  Distribution of Civilization Levels  56 
6.3  Special Basic Model  60 
6.4  Technological Civilisations  61 
6.5  Comparable technological Civilizations  62 
6.6  Space traveling Civilizations  64 
6.7  Hypothetically  supplement 
6.8  Maxium considerations  supplement 
6.9  Probabilities  65 
7  Survival of a Civilization  67 
7.1  Development Barriers of a Civilization  67 
7.2  Differentiation for Development Barriers  supplement 
7.3  Age of a Civilization  68 
7.4  Old Civilizations in the Galaxy  68 
7.5  Temporal Distribution of Civilizations  70 
7.6  Visitors  72 
8  General Basic Model  73 
8.1  Starsystems  73 
8.2  Habitable Planets  73 
8.3  "Earth 2"  75 
8.4  Technological Civilizations  77 
8.5  Other Civilizations  79 
8.6  Comparison  80 
8.7  Galactical habitable Zone  80 
8.8  Probability Factors  82 
8.9  Symbols of some stars  supplemen 
Part 2  Additional Models  
9  The DrakeEquation  83 
9.1  The classic DrakeEquation  83 
9.2  Critics on the DrakeEquation  85 
9.3  Carl Sagan  86 
9.4  The modified DrakeEquation  87 
9.5  DrakeEquation and General Basic Model  88 
9.6  Corrected Values for the Earth  90 
9.7  Corrections for Life and Intelligence  92 
9.8  Corrections for the Basic Model  92 
9.9  Other Civilizations  94 
10  The SeagerEquation  95 
10.1  The Equation from SaraSeager  95 
10.2  The extended SeagerEquation  96 
10.3  The transformed SeagerEquation  98 
11  Equivalence of Considerations  100 
11.1  Equivalence  100 
11.2  Corrected Values for the Earth  101 
11.3  Corrections for Life and Intelligence  102 
11.4  Corrections for the Basic Model  103 
11.5  Other Civilizations  105 
11.6  Result  106 
12  A General Approach  107 
12.1  Spectral Classes  107 
12.2  Civilizations in the Galaxy  108 
12.3  Technological Civilizations  110 
12.4  Other Civilizations  111 
12.5  Basic Model and General Approach  112 
12.6  DrakeEquation and General Approach  113 
12.7  Corrections for the Earth  114 
Part 3  Evolution Options  
13  Lines of Evolution  115 
13.1  Lines of Development on the Earth  115 
13.2  Convergent Development  117 
13.3  Differentiation for Shape Possibilities  supplement 
13.4  Humanoids in sunlike Systems  118 
13.5  Corrected General Basic Model  119 
13.6  General Approach  120 
13.7  Working Hypothesis  121 
13.8  Probabilities  122 
14  Approximately earthgreat planets  123 
14.1  Influence of Gravity  123 
14.2  Life and Civilization  125 
14.3  Non sunlike Systems  128 
14.4  Result  129 
15  Distributions  130 
15.1  Distribution of Raw Materials  130 
15.2  Maximum Distribution of Civilizations  132 
15.3  Distribution of Civilizations  133 
15.4  Result  135 
15.5  Building Set  136 
15.6  Total Number of technological Civilizations  supplement 
15.7  Total Number of humanoid Civilizations  supplement 
15.8  Total Number of old Civilizations  supplement 
Table  137  
Part 4  Additional Considerations  
16  The SETIProject  139 
16.1  The History of SETI  139 
16.2  SETI@home  supplemen 
16.3  Signals  143 
16.4  Operating Time of SETI  144 
16.5  No Answer  144 
16.6  Quantum Technology  145 
16.7  Distribution of Starsystems  146 
16.8  The best Case  147 
16.9  Distances and Periods  148 
16.10  Consequences  149 
17  A look into the future  supplemen 
17.1  The KardaschowScale  supplemen 
17.2  Future Levels of a Civilization  supplemen 
17.3  Daughter Civilizations  supplemen 
17.4  Expansion of a civilization  supplemen 
17.5  Expansion of civilizations  supplemen 
17.6  Expansion of humanity  supplemen 
18  The FermiParadox  150 
18.1  The Considerations of Fermi  150 
18.2  The Situation today  150 
18.3  Possible answers  supplemen 
18.4  Worst Case  supplemen 
18.5  Conclusion  supplemen 
Bibliography  152  
Images Directory  161  
List of Names  165  
Persons  165  
Telescopes, Radio Telescopes  166  
Instutions  166  
Satellites, Space Station  166  
Astronomy  167  
Epochs  169  
Races  169  
Human Development  170  
Locations  171  
Keyword Index  172  
A new version of the book is under
construction. It will be published until April 2020 The new version will have 256 sites and it will be cheaper. 
176 Sites 84 coloured Illustrations 9 Tables Production und Publishing: Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt ISBN 9783752855241 Price: 22 Euro 
